Leonardo Da Vinci  1452-1519
Henry Dreyfuss 1904-1972
Buckminster Fuller 1895-1983
The “Renaissance Man” of the middle
ages, Leonardo Da Vinci is best known
for his painted works – “Mona Lisa”,
and “The Last Supper”. Leonardo was
also  a diversely talented designer,
inventor, sculptor, engineer and
architect.  Among his conceptual
works are the helicopter, hang glider, a
tank, calculator, and references to
utilization of solar power.
One of the best known Industrial
Designers of the 20th century, Henry
Dreyfuss and his design firm were
responsible for  familiar products such
as the Westclox “Big Ben” alarm clock,
Hoover “Model 150” vacuum cleaner,
John Deere “A” and “B” model
tractors, the Honeywell circular wall
thermostat, and the “Trimline” desk
telephone to name a few.  Dreyfuss’
attention to human factors and
integration of ergonomics arguably
resulted in Deere and Company’s
dominance of the agriculture
equipment market. His influence
undoubtedly encouraged many
corporations to utilize industrial
designers in their creative process.
Known mainly for his invention of the
geodesic dome, Buckminster “Bucky”
Fuller’s greatest contribution was his
visionary intellect. His geodesic dome,
a tetrahedron, was typically
constructed of  aluminum tubing  
covered with a vinyl plastic film. The
domes were used by the US Army for
shelters in the field.  Bucky believed if
society's basic needs of food and
shelter were provided, humanity would
flourish. One ambitious proposal
envisioned a dome covering much of
East St. Louis, IL, a depressed
community across the Mississippi river
from St. Louis, MO. Fuller’s Dymaxion
Car, designed in 1933, had a fuel
efficiency of 30 MPG carrying 12
passenger to a speed of 120MPH. As a
teacher his greatest influence on
students was not his ability to teach
design skills, but his attention to
forward thinking and visionary
Industrial Design – The creative process of developing products and systems to a state of  aesthetic and functional
completion. Industrial designers usually partner with engineers and marketers to create and develop concepts for
introduction of new products. The design process typically utilizes ideation, sketches, mock-ups and prototypes, and
testing. Ergonomics and other human factors are considered along with integration of  artistic considerations for form,
color, and texture resulting in a marketable item. An industrial designer’s main goal is innovation in three dimensional
applications, but  techniques employed are readily applied to two dimensional applications or even designs of space
and environment.

"Industrial Design (ID) is the professional service of creating and developing concepts and specifications that optimize
the function, value and appearance of products and systems for the mutual benefit of both user and manufacturer."
Industrial Design Society of America

"Design is a creative activity whose aim is to establish the multi-faceted qualities of objects, processes, services and
their systems in whole life-cycles. Therefore, design is the central factor of innovative humanization of technologies
and the crucial factor of cultural and economic exchange".  
International Council of Societies of Industrial Design

“Design is a force that delivers innovation that in turn has exploited creativity.”
Chartered Society of  Designers

"Design is the process of taking something from its existing state and moving it to a preferred state".  
Carnegie Mellon School of Design